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4-5: Summary of Part 4

Let us summarize what we have learned in Part 4.
(1) In the microscopic world, there had successively appeared many phenomena which were not able to be explained by the classical theory consisting of Newtonian mechanics and Maxwellian electromagnetism. This was a clear deadlock of the classical theory. The stability of atoms and the line spectra radiated from various atoms were not understood with the classical theory.
(2) Bohr was successful in explaining the structure of the hydrogen atom using Bohr's quantum theory, in which the postulations (the Bohr hypotheses) were added to the Rutherford model based on the classical theory.
(3) The existence of de Broglie matter waves was experimentally confirmed. It was clarified that the motion of electrons accompanies the wave nature and Bohr's quantum condition is naturally been understood by introducing de Broglie waves.
Consequently, it has been elucidated that both light and substance particles are particles as well as waves. This meant that they had to construct a new revolutional theory to solve the contradiction in this dual nature, i.e. the particle nature and the wave nature.

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